United Nations Convention
on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts
New York, 2007
UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW
UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION
Sales No. E.07.V.2
The States Parties to this Convention,
Reaffirming their belief that international trade on the basis of equality and mutual benefit is an important element in promoting friendly relations
Noting that the increased use of electronic communications improves the efficiency of commercial activities, enhances trade connections and
allows new access opportunities for previously remote parties and markets,
thus playing a fundamental role in promoting trade and economic development, both domestically and internationally,
Considering that problems created by uncertainty as to the legal value of the use of electronic communications in international contracts constitute
an obstacle to international trade,
Convinced that the adoption of uniform rules to remove obstacles to the use of electronic communications in international contracts, including
obstacles that might result from the operation of existing international trade law instruments, would enhance legal certainty and commercial predictability
for international contracts and help States gain access to modern trade routes,
Being of the opinion that uniform rules should respect the freedom of parties to choose appropriate media and technologies, taking account of the
principles of technological neutrality and functional equivalence, to the extent that the means chosen by the parties comply with the purpose of
the relevant rules of law,
Desiring to provide a common solution to remove legal obstacles to the use of electronic communications in a manner acceptable to States with
different legal, social and economic systems,
Have agreed as follows:
CHAPTER I. SPHERE OF APPLICATION
Article 1. Scope of application
1. This Convention applies to the use of electronic communications in connection with the formation or performance of a contract between
parties whose places of business are in different States.
2. The fact that the parties have their places of business in different States is to be disregarded whenever this fact does not appear either from
the contract or from any dealings between the parties or from information disclosed by the parties at any time before or at the conclusion of the
3. Neither the nationality of the parties nor the civil or commercial character of the parties or of the contract is to be taken into consideration
in determining the application of this Convention.
Article 2. Exclusions
1. This Convention does not apply to electronic communications relating to any of the following:
(a) Contracts concluded for personal, family or household purposes;
(b) (i) Transactions on a regulated exchange; (ii) foreign exchange transactions; (iii) inter-bank payment systems, inter-bank payment agreements
or clearance and settlement systems relating to securities or other financial assets or instruments; (iv) the transfer of security rights in sale,
loan or holding of or agreement to repurchase securities or other financial assets or instruments held with an intermediary.
2. This Convention does not apply to bills of exchange, promissory notes, consignment notes, bills of lading, warehouse receipts or any transferable
document or instrument that entitles the bearer or beneficiary to claim the delivery of goods or the payment of a sum of money.
Article 3. Party autonomy
The parties may exclude the application of this Convention or derogate from or vary the effect of any of its provisions.
CHAPTER II. GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 4. Definitions
For the purposes of this Convention:
(a) “Communication” means any statement, declaration, demand, notice or request, including an offer and the acceptance of an offer, that the
parties are required to make or choose to make in connection with the formation or performance of a contract;
(b) “Electronic communication” means any communication that the parties make by means of data messages;
(c) “Data message” means information generated, sent, received or stored by electronic, magnetic, optical or similar means, including, but not
limited to, electronic data interchange, electronic mail, telegram, telex or telecopy;
(d) “Originator” of an electronic communication means a party by whom, or on whose behalf, the electronic communication has been sent or
generated prior to storage, if any, but it does not include a party acting as an intermediary with respect to that electronic communication;
(e) “Addressee” of an electronic communication means a party who is intended by the originator to receive the electronic communication, but does
not include a party acting as an intermediary with respect to that electronic communication;
(f) “Information system” means a system for generating, sending, receiving, storing or otherwise processing data messages;
(g) “Automated message system” means a computer program or an electronic or other automated means used to initiate an action or respond to
data messages or performances in whole or in part, without review or intervention by a natural person each time an action is initiated or a response is
generated by the system;
(h) “Place of business” means any place where a party maintains a non-transitory establishment to pursue an economic activity other than the
temporary provision of goods or services out of a specific location.
Article 5. Interpretation
1. In the interpretation of this Convention, regard is to be had to its international character and to the need to promote uniformity in its application
and the observance of good faith in international trade.
2. Questions concerning matters governed by this Convention which are not expressly settled in it are to be settled in conformity with the
general principles on which it is based or, in the absence of such principles, in conformity with the law applicable by virtue of the rules of private
Article 6. Location of the parties
1. For the purposes of this Convention, a party’s place of business is presumed to be the location indicated by that party, unless another party
demonstrates that the party making the indication does not have a place of business at that location.
2. If a party has not indicated a place of business and has more than one place of business, then the place of business for the purposes of this
Convention is that which has the closest relationship to the relevant contract, having regard to the circumstances known to or contemplated by the
parties at any time before or at the conclusion of the contract.
3. If a natural person does not have a place of business, reference is to be made to the person’s habitual residence.
4. A location is not a place of business merely because that is:
(a) where equipment and technology supporting an information system used by a party in connection with the formation of a contract are located; or
(b) where the information system may be accessed by other parties.
5. The sole fact that a party makes use of a domain name or electronic mail address connected to a specific country does not create a
presumption that its place of business is located in that country.
Article 7. Information requirements
Nothing in this Convention affects the application of any rule of law that may require the parties to disclose their identities, places of business
or other information, or relieves a party from the legal consequences of making inaccurate, incomplete or false statements in that regard.
CHAPTER III. USE OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS
IN INTERNATIONAL CONTRACTS
Article 8. Legal recognition of electronic communications
1. A communication or a contract shall not be denied validity or enforceability on the sole ground that it is in the form of an electronic communication.
2. Nothing in this Convention requires a party to use or accept electronic communications, but a party’s agreement to do so may be inferred
from the party’s conduct.
Article 9. Form requirements
1. Nothing in this Convention requires a communication or a contract to be made or evidenced in any particular form.
2. Where the law requires that a communication or a contract should be in writing, or provides consequences for the absence of a writing, that
requirement is met by an electronic communication if the information contained therein is accessible so as to be usable for subsequent reference.
3. Where the law requires that a communication or a contract should be signed by a party, or provides consequences for the absence of a signature,
that requirement is met in relation to an electronic communication if:
(a) A method is used to identify the party and to indicate that party’s intention in respect of the information contained in the electronic communication;
(b) The method used is either:
(i) As reliable as appropriate for the purpose for which the electronic communication was generated or communicated,
in the light of all the circumstances, including any relevant agreement; or
(ii) Proven in fact to have fulfilled the functions described in subparagraph (a) above, by itself or together with further
4. Where the law requires that a communication or a contract should be made available or retained in its original form, or provides consequences
for the absence of an original, that requirement is met in relation to an electronic communication if:
(a) There exists a reliable assurance as to the integrity of the information it contains from the time when it was first generated in its final form,
as an electronic communication or otherwise; and
(b) Where it is required that the information it contains be made available, that information is capable of being displayed to the person to whom
it is to be made available.
5. For the purposes of paragraph 4 (a):
(a) The criteria for assessing integrity shall be whether the information has remained complete and unaltered, apart from the addition of any
endorsement and any change that arises in the normal course of communication, storage and display; and
(b) The standard of reliability required shall be assessed in the light of the purpose for which the information was generated and in the light of
all the relevant circumstances.
Article 10. Time and place of dispatch and
receipt of electronic communications
1. The time of dispatch of an electronic communication is the time when it leaves an information system under the control of the originator or
of the party who sent it on behalf of the originator or, if the electronic communication has not left an information system under the control of the
originator or of the party who sent it on behalf of the originator, the time when the electronic communication is received.
2. The time of receipt of an electronic communication is the time when it becomes capable of being retrieved by the addressee at an electronic
address designated by the addressee. The time of receipt of an electronic communication at another electronic address of the addressee is the time
when it becomes capable of being retrieved by the addressee at that address and the addressee becomes aware that the electronic communication has
been sent to that address. An electronic communication is presumed to be capable of being retrieved by the addressee when it reaches the addressee’s
3. An electronic communication is deemed to be dispatched at the place where the originator has its place of business and is deemed to be
received at the place where the addressee has its place of business, as determined in accordance with article 6.
4. Paragraph 2 of this article applies notwithstanding that the place where the information system supporting an electronic address is located
may be different from the place where the electronic communication is deemed to be received under paragraph 3 of this article.
Article 11. Invitations to make offers
A proposal to conclude a contract made through one or more electronic communications which is not addressed to one or more specific parties, but
is generally accessible to parties making use of information systems, including proposals that make use of interactive applications for the placement of
orders through such information systems, is to be considered as an invitationto make offers, unless it clearly indicates the intention of the party
making the proposal to be bound in case of acceptance.
Article 12. Use of automated message systems
for contract formation
A contract formed by the interaction of an automated message system and a natural person, or by the interaction of automated message systems,
shall not be denied validity or enforceability on the sole ground that non atural person reviewed or intervened in each of the individual actions
carried out by the automated message systems or the resulting contract.
Article 13. Availability of contract terms
Nothing in this Convention affects the application of any rule of law that may require a party that negotiates some or all of the terms of a contract
through the exchange of electronic communications to make available to the other party those electronic communications which contain the contractual
terms in a particular manner, or relieves a party from the legal consequences of its failure to do so.
Article 14. Error in electronic communications
1. Where a natural person makes an input error in an electronic communication exchanged with the automated message system of another party
and the automated message system does not provide the person with an opportunity to correct the error, that person, or the party on whose behalf
that person was acting, has the right to withdraw the portion of the electronic communication in which the input error was made if:
(a) The person, or the party on whose behalf that person was acting, notifies the other party of the error as soon as possible after having learned
of the error and indicates that he or she made an error in the electronic communication; and
(b) The person, or the party on whose behalf that person was acting, has not used or received any material benefit or value from the goods or
services, if any, received from the other party.
2. Nothing in this article affects the application of any rule of law that may govern the consequences of any error other than as provided for
in paragraph 1.
CHAPTER IV. FINAL PROVISIONS
Article 15. Depositary
The Secretary-General of the United Nations is hereby designated as
the depositary for this Convention.
Article 16. Signature, ratification, acceptance or approval
1. This Convention is open for signature by all States at United
Nations Headquarters in New York from 16 January 2006 to 16 January
2. This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval
by the signatory States.
3. This Convention is open for accession by all States that are not
signatory States as from the date it is open for signature.
4. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval and accession are
to be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article 17. Participation by regional economic
1. A regional economic integration organization that is constituted by
sovereign States and has competence over certain matters governed by this
Convention may similarly sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to this
Convention. The regional economic integration organization shall in that
case have the rights and obligations of a Contracting State, to the extent that
that organization has competence over matters governed by this Convention.
Where the number of Contracting States is relevant in this Convention, the
regional economic integration organization shall not count as a Contracting
State in addition to its member States that are Contracting States.
2. The regional economic integration organization shall, at the time
of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, make a declaration
to the depositary specifying the matters governed by this Convention
in respect of which competence has been transferred to that organization by
its member States. The regional economic integration organization shall
promptly notify the depositary of any changes to the distribution of competence,
including new transfers of competence, specified in the declaration
under this paragraph.
3. Any reference to a “Contracting State” or “Contracting States” in
this Convention applies equally to a regional economic integration organization
where the context so requires.
4. This Convention shall not prevail over any conflicting rules of any
regional economic integration organization as applicable to parties whose
respective places of business are located in States members of any such
organization, as set out by declaration made in accordance with article 21.
Article 18. Effect in domestic territorial units
1. If a Contracting State has two or more territorial units in which
different systems of law are applicable in relation to the matters dealt with
in this Convention, it may, at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance,
approval or accession, declare that this Convention is to extend to all its
territorial units or only to one or more of them, and may amend its declaration
by submitting another declaration at any time.
2. These declarations are to be notified to the depositary and are to
state expressly the territorial units to which the Convention extends.
3. If, by virtue of a declaration under this article, this Convention
extends to one or more but not all of the territorial units of a Contracting
State, and if the place of business of a party is located in that State, this
place of business, for the purposes of this Convention, is considered not to
be in a Contracting State, unless it is in a territorial unit to which the
4. If a Contracting State makes no declaration under paragraph 1 of
this article, the Convention is to extend to all territorial units of that State.
Article 19. Declarations on the scope of application
1. Any Contracting State may declare, in accordance with article 21,
that it will apply this Convention only:
(a) When the States referred to in article 1, paragraph 1, are
Contracting States to this Convention; or
(b) When the parties have agreed that it applies.
2. Any Contracting State may exclude from the scope of application
of this Convention the matters it specifies in a declaration made in
accordance with article 21.
Article 20. Communications exchanged under
other international conventions
1. The provisions of this Convention apply to the use of electronic
communications in connection with the formation or performance of a
contract to which any of the following international conventions, to which
a Contracting State to this Convention is or may become a Contracting State,
Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral
Awards (New York, 10 June 1958);
Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods
(New York, 14 June 1974) and Protocol thereto (Vienna, 11 April
United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of
Goods (Vienna, 11 April 1980);
United Nations Convention on the Liability of Operators of Transport
Terminals in International Trade (Vienna, 19 April 1991);
United Nations Convention on Independent Guarantees and Stand-by
Letters of Credit (New York, 11 December 1995);
United Nations Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in
International Trade (New York, 12 December 2001).
2. The provisions of this Convention apply further to electronic communications
in connection with the formation or performance of a contract
to which another international convention, treaty or agreement not specifically
referred to in paragraph 1 of this article, and to which a Contracting
State to this Convention is or may become a Contracting State, applies,
unless the State has declared, in accordance with article 21, that it will not
be bound by this paragraph.
3. A State that makes a declaration pursuant to paragraph 2 of this
article may also declare that it will nevertheless apply the provisions of this
Convention to the use of electronic communications in connection with the
formation or performance of any contract to which a specified international
convention, treaty or agreement applies to which the State is or may become
a Contracting State.
4. Any State may declare that it will not apply the provisions of this
Convention to the use of electronic communications in connection with the
formation or performance of a contract to which any international convention,
treaty or agreement specified in that State’s declaration, to which the
State is or may become a Contracting State, applies, including any of the
conventions referred to in paragraph 1 of this article, even if such State has
not excluded the application of paragraph 2 of this article by a declaration
made in accordance with article 21.
Article 21. Procedure and effects of declarations
1. Declarations under article 17, paragraph 4, article 19, paragraphs 1
and 2, and article 20, paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, may be made at any time.
Declarations made at the time of signature are subject to confirmation upon
ratification, acceptance or approval.
2. Declarations and their confirmations are to be in writing and to be
formally notified to the depositary.
3. A declaration takes effect simultaneously with the entry into force
of this Convention in respect of the State concerned. However, a declaration
of which the depositary receives formal notification after such entry
into force takes effect on the first day of the month following the expiration
of six months after the date of its receipt by the depositary.
4. Any State that makes a declaration under this Convention may
modify or withdraw it at any time by a formal notification in writing
addressed to the depositary. The modification or withdrawal is to take effect
on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months after
the date of the receipt of the notification by the depositary.
Article 22. Reservations
No reservations may be made under this Convention.
Article 23. Entry into force
1. This Convention enters into force on the first day of the month
following the expiration of six months after the date of deposit of the third
instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
2. When a State ratifies, accepts, approves or accedes to this
Convention after the deposit of the third instrument of ratification, acceptance,
approval or accession, this Convention enters into force in respect of
that State on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months
after the date of the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance,
approval or accession.
Article 24. Time of application
This Convention and any declaration apply only to electronic communications
that are made after the date when the Convention or the declaration
enters into force or takes effect in respect of each Contracting State.
Article 25. Denunciations
1. A Contracting State may denounce this Convention by a formal
notification in writing addressed to the depositary.
2. The denunciation takes effect on the first day of the month following
the expiration of twelve months after the notification is received by the
depositary. Where a longer period for the denunciation to take effect is specified
in the notification, the denunciation takes effect upon the expiration of
such longer period after the notification is received by the depositary.
DONE at New York this twenty-third day of November two thousand
and five, in a single original, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French,
Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly
authorized by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention.